PET’S BLOOD TESTS – UNDERSTANDING BLOOD CHEMISTRY

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Hello everyone, Dr. Kashif Amin here, today we discuss an important topic about pets’ health. How to interpret the pet’s blood reports? This is very important to understand Your Pet’s Diagnostic Testing and report interpretation. Before performing blood tests you must have a strong grip on blood chemistry. So, first, we discuss what is Blood? What is Blood chemistry?

What is Blood Chemistry?

Blood chemistry and tests enable doctors and vets to evaluate your pet’s complete well-being and strength. Blood tests are usually prescribed in healthy pets, in pets about to experience anesthesia and in infected pets. Understanding of various tests in association with one another provides a fast and non-invasive evaluation of the main organ systems of the pets.

UNDERSTANDING BLOOD CHEMISTRY
UNDERSTANDING BLOOD CHEMISTRY

Why does your vet suggest regular testing of blood and urine, particularly in older dogs? The purpose of every vet is to recognize any issues your pet may have very first because seldom, initial detection can mean more desirable therapy claims or perhaps reducing the progression of a condition. It is surprising what can be studied about your pet’s health with several tests carried on samples of blood and urine.

UNDERSTANDING BLOOD CHEMISTRY

Kidney

Following chemicals should be associated with pets kidney;

  1. Calcium: Calcium increases may be observed as a result of a variety of conditions including kidney
    disease, some cancer kinds, specific toxicities, and parathyroid condition; drops may be noticed
    with certain parathyroid attacks and with low albumin.
  2. Phosphorus: P increases are observed with reduced kidney loss through diseases like
    kidney condition increased consumption through the gastrointestinal tract and enhanced discharge from damaged tissues; progress in developing puppies and cats can be normal; reductions may be detected with enhanced loss or decreased intake.
  3. Creatinine: CREA increases may be observed with declined kidney function and other diseases,  but is not influenced by a new high protein food; decreases may be detected with
    overhydration.
  4. Blood Urea Nitrogen: BUN raises may be observed with decreased kidney function,
    dehydration, a heart condition, shock or urinary barrier as well as following a high protein diet;
    decreases may be detected with overhydration.

Pancreas

The pancreas produces multiple enzymes like Pancreatic lipase, Phospholipase A, Pancreatic amylase, Pancreatic peptidases, and Pro-co-lipase.  Following enzymes should be associated with pets Pancreas;

  1. Pancreatic lipase: LIPA increase may be viewed with pancreatitis, kidney disease, gastrointestinal disorder, and specific drug therapies; the degree of variation and other laboratory data may aid to know pancreatitis particularly.
  2. Pancreatic Amylase: AMYL increases may be observed with pancreatitis, kidney disease, gastrointestinal disorder, and specific drug therapies; the degree of variation and other laboratory data may aid to know pancreatitis particularly.

Liver

Following tests should be associated with pets Pancreas;

  1. Bile Acids: Bile acids involve cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid as primary bile acids and secondary bile acids include Lithocholic acid and lithodeoxycholic acid. Bile acid increases in this blood component may be an indication of limited liver function, anomalies in blood flow to the liver or possible bile duct blockage.
  2. Total Bilirubin: Bilirubin is produced from the blood when red blood cells break down and haeme is released, this haeme is converted to bilirubin in the liver. Bilirubin increases may be observed with the liver condition (cholestasis and insufficiency) and some types of anemia.
  3. Albumin: Albumin increases may show dehydration; drops may be observed with decreased
    liver function, blood loss, gastrointestinal disorder or kidney condition.
  4.  Gamma Glutamyl Transferase: GGT increases may show a particular type of liver anomaly
    (cholestasis).
  5.  Alkaline Phosphatase: ALKP advances may show a liver anomaly (cholestasis), Cushing’s disease, active bone growth in growing pets, active bone remodeling following bone damage;
    maybe influenced by multiple medications and nonspecific diseases.
  6. Alanine Aminotransferase: ALT rises are a sensitive sign of liver cell damage.
  7. Asparate Aminotransferas: AST increase may show liver, heart or skeletal muscle injury.

Complete Protein Profile:

  1. Total Protein: TP rises may show dehydration or an inflammatory state; decreases may be detected in decreased liver function, blood loss, gastrointestinal loss, and kidney loss.
  2. Albumin: ALB increases may show dehydration; decreases may be seen with decreased
    liver function, blood loss, gastrointestinal disease, and kidney disease.
  3. Globulin: Globin raises may be observed with inflammation and potential chronic disease;
    reductions may be seen with blood loss, gastrointestinal loss, and immune deficiencies.

Electrolytes

  1. Sodium: Na raises may indicate dehydration; reductions may be detected with loss during
    diarrhea and vomiting or with Addison’s and kidney disease.
  2. Potassium: K raises may depict kidney disease due to decreased excretion, with Addison’s disease, dehydration and kidney obstruction; reductions may be observed with loss during
    diarrhea or vomiting.
  3. Chloride: CL raises may show dehydration; reductions may be oberved with loss during
    diarrhea or vomiting.
  4. Bicarbonate: Bicarb is an sign of acid/base scale and can be changed with vomiting and other ailments.

Other Possible Chemistries

  1. Glucose: Glucose induce may depict diabetes mellitus; declined may be due to liver disease, pancreatic disorder, and other issues and could lead to collapse, seizures.
  2. Creatine kinase: CK induction is correlated with muscle damage.
  3. Cholesterol: CHOL induction may be observed with a variety of metabolic disturbances including diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, Cushing’s disease, pancreatitis and other types of kidney disease; declined may be detected with liver insufficiency and intestinal disease.
  4. Triglycerides: TRG induction may be detected  in various conditions including non-fasted
    samples, in miniature schnauzers, and in patient’s with pancreatitis, diabetes, Cushing’s disease
    or hypothyroidism
  5. Cortisol: It increases may be seen with Cushing’s disease; decreases may be seen with
    Addison’s disease.
  6. Thyroxine: T4 induction may show hyperthyroidism (primarily cats); declined may indicate
    hypothyroidism.
  7. Lactate: It induction indicate either local or overall decreased blood perfusion and can
    potentially serve as a prognostic sign of the critical patient.

PET’S BLOOD TESTS

  1. Complete Blood Count (CBC)
    1. Red blood cells count
    2. Mean cell volume
    3. Mean cell hemoglobin
    4. Mean cell hemoglobin concentration
    5. Red cell distribution width
    6. Reticulocytes
    7. White blood cells
    8. Leukocyte Differential
    9. Platelets count
    10. Mean platelet volume
    11. Platelet distribution width

Download Atlas of canine and feline blood smears

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