Nutritional Deficiency in Animals

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Nutritional Deficiency in Animals

Nutritional deficiency in animals is mostly neglected, manage these things according to requirement of animals to get better growth rate and production. today we will discuss about nutritional deficiencies in animals. So, start this discussion with basics;

What is Nutrition?

Nutrition is the science that interprets the interaction of nutrients and other substances in foods in relation to the maintenance, growth, reproduction, health and disease of an organism. This includes food intake, absorption, assimilation, biosynthesis, catabolism and excretion. Nutrition is the act of nourishment or being nourished.

What are Nutrients?

Nutrients are chemical substances in food that are used by the body to produce energy and tissues growth and development. nutrients are of two types micro and macro nutrients.

1. Micro nutrients:

Those nutrients which required bu animals in small quantity are called micro nutrients, like vitamins and mineral.

2. Macro nutrients:

Those nutrients which required by animals in large amount like carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and water.

Vitamins:

Vitamins are essential organic nutrients, required in small amounts, that cannot be synthesized by the body. Required for growth, maintenance, reproduction and lactation.Vitamin deficiency lead to decline in health due to the lack of a vitamin in a ration.

Types of Vitamins: 

There are two types of vitamins,

  1. Fat soluble vitamins (ADEK),  a vitamin that can be stored and accumulated in the liver and other fatty tissues.
  2. Water soluble vitamins (BC), a vitamin that cannot be stored in the tissues. Must be provided regularly as deficiencies can develop in a short time.

Minerals:

Minerals are essential inorganic compounds, required in small amounts. Required for growth, maintenance, reproduction and lactation.There are two types of minerals;

  1. Macrominerals: required in large amounts.
  2. Micromineralsrequired in small amounts

Facts about Vitamins

Vitamins are essential organic nutrients, required in small amounts.They cannot be synthesized by the body. Must be obtained by outside sources like diet, rumen bacteria & sun. Required for growth, maintenance, reproduction and lactation.

Function, Nutritional Deficiency & Sources of Vitamins

Vitamin A

  • Function: development healthy skin and nerve tissue. Functions in eyesight and bone formation. ALL ANIMALS require a source of Vitamin A.
  • Nutritional Deficiency Vitamin A: retarded growth in the young, the development of a peculiar condition around the eyes known as Xerophthalmia, night blindness and reproductive disorders.
  • Sources: whole milk, carotene, animal body oils (cod fish and tuna), legume forages and can be synthetically
    produced.
Vitamin A deficiency in animals
Vitamin A deficiency in animals

 

Vitamin E

  • Function: normal reproduction.
  • Nutrional Deficiency Vitamin E: poor growth, Muscular Dystrophy, “white muscle” disease in ruminants and “stiff lamb” disease (affects the nerves and muscles).
  • Sources: cereal grains and wheat germ oil, green forages, protein concentrates, oil seeds (peanut and
    soybean oil).
    Vitamin E rapidly destroyed in rancid or spoiled fats. That is why these may cause white muscle disease.
    Utilization of Vitamin E is dependent on adequate selenium.
Vitamin E deficiency in animals
Vitamin E deficiency in animals

Vitamin D

  • Function: is essential for the proper utilization of calcium and phosphorus to produce normal, healthy bones.
  • Nutritional Deficiency Vitamin D: retarded growth, misshapen bones (rickets), lameness and osteoporosis.
  • Sources: Whole milk, sun-cured hays, forage crops, fish liver oils, irradiated yeast.
Vitamin D deficiency in animals
Vitamin D deficiency in animals

Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid)

  • Function: has an effect on the metabolism of calcium in the body (Not required in rations of farm animals.).
  • Nutritional Deficiency Vitamin C: none demonstrated in livestock. Human deficiency: scurvy (swollen and painful joints and bleeding gums) and brittleness of bones.
  • Sources: citrus fruits, tomatoes, leafy vegetables and potatoes.

Vitamin B

  • Function: required for the normal metabolism of carbohydrates.
  • Nutritional Deficiency Vitamin B: loss of appetite, muscular weakness, severe nervous disorders, general weakness and wasting (BeriBeri).
  • Sources: raw, whole grains and especially their seed coats and embryos; fresh green forage; and yeast, milk and rumen synthesis.

Vitamin B

  • Function: required for the normal metabolism of carbohydrates.
  • Nutritional Deficiency Vitamin B: loss of appetite, muscular weakness, severe nervous disorders, general weakness and wasting (BeriBeri).
  • Sources: raw, whole grains and especially their seed coats and embryos; fresh green forage; and yeast, milk and rumen synthesis.

Facts of Minerals

Essential inorganic nutrients, required in small amounts. As many as 20 minerals may be required! Required for growth, maintenance, reproduction and lactation.

Macrominerals:

  • Calcium Ca
  • Phosphorous P
  • Potassium K
  • Sulfur S
  • Sodium Na
  • Chlorine Cl
  • Magnesium Mg

Calcium

  • Function: major component of bones and teeth and essential in blood coagulation, nerve and muscle
    function and milk and egg production.
  • Nutritional Deficiency Calcium: retarded growth, deformed bones in young animals (rickets), and osteoporosis in older animals.
  • Sources: milk, oyster shells and limestone.

Sodium Chloride

Considered together because of a close biochemical relationship and are provided as common salt (NaCl)

  • Function: required for the formation and retention, concentration and pH of body fluids, such as protoplasm,
    blood. Important in the formation of digestive juices and functions in nerve and muscle activity.
  • Nutritional Deficiency Sodium Chloride: poor condition and depressed appetite. Most farm produced feeds are deficient in these two minerals.
  • Sources: salt supplements and injectable products.

Phosphorus

  • Function: essential for the formation of bones, teeth, and body fluids. Required for metabolism, cell
    respiration and normal reproduction.
  • Nutritional Deficiency Phosphorus: similar to calcium deficiency, lack of appetite, poor reproduction and unthrifty
    appearance.
  • Sources: dicalcium phosphate, bone meal, and low fluorine phosphates.

Potassium

  • Function: retention and formation of body fluids, pH concentration of body fluid and rumen digestion.
  • Nutritional Deficiency Potassium: nonspecific and unlikely under most conditions but may have decreased feed consumption and efficiency.
  • Sources: roughages. Grains are less than roughages.

Manganese

  • Function: Fetal development, udder development, milk production and skeleton development.
  • Nutritional Deficiency of Manganese: Abortions, reduced fertility, deformed young and poor growth.
  • Sources: Most use trace mineralized salt.

Microminerals

  1. Iodine (I)
  2. Copper (Cu)
  3. Iron (Fe)
  4. Selenium (Se)
  5. Manganese (Mn)
  6. Molybedenum (Mo)
  7. Zinc (Zn)

Copper

  • Function: should be present in animal tissues for iron to be properly utilized, hemoglobin formation and
    synthesis of keratin for fair and wool growth.
  • Nutritional Deficiency of Copper: sway back lambs, lack of muscle coordination and anemia.
  • Sources: Forages and copper salts.

Iron

  • Function: essential for the function of every organ and tissue of the body (Hemoglobin).
  • Nutritional Deficiency of Iron: seldom occurs in older animals, nutritional anemia, labored breathing and pale eyelids, ears and nose.
  • Sources: forages and copper or trace mineral salts.

Cobalt

  • Function: required as a nutrient for the microorganisms in ruminants and thereby aids in rumen synthesis of Vitamin B12.
  • Nutritional Deficiency of Cobalt: lack of appetite, loss of weight, rough hair coat, anemia, decreased milk and wool production and death in extreme cases.
  • Sources: legume forages and salt containing cobalt.

Magnesium

  • Function: similar to calcium and phosphorus.
  • Nutritional Deficiency of Magnesium: Animals are irritable, their heart beat is irregular and there is severe kidney damage.
  • Sources: mineral supplements and ordinary feeds.

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