Hello Nutritionists, hope you are doing well. Today we will discuss about Mechanism of Ammonia Toxicity in Ruminants. This is very important to understand in high producing animals. before starting do share your knowledge what do you know about this topic.
What is Ammonia?
Ammonia is a gas produced in ruminants during Deamination ( Breakdown of amino acids into ammonia). Ammonia produced during fermentation in rumen by bacteria.
How Ammonia toxicity occur in ruminants?
Mechanism of Ammonia Toxicity in Ruminants is very complex. If excess of proteins are present in the diet of ruminants toxicity occur. Proteins are breakdown into ammonia and keto acids. Some ammonia changes into microbial proteins and some is used by protozoa for their protein synthesis. excess of ammonia absorbed into blood stream lead to increases concentartion ammonia and ammonium ion, as PH increases ammonium ion is converted into ammonia, ammonia absorb faster than ammonium ion. Increase ammonia lead to toxicity. If the level of ammonia in blood plasma is more than 2mg/100ml then it is toxic.
Ammonia is more toxic because its absorption rate in blood stream is faster than ammonium ion.
Safe level of Ammonia?
Ammonia is safe below 2mg/100ml of blood plasma.
Treatment of ammonia toxicity in ruminants?
In case of ammonia or urea toxicity offer ad libidum cold water to animals to dilute and neutralize ammonia.
You can also offer equal ratio of vinegar and water, vinegar neutralize ammonia and urea.
Decrease the overall crude protein of animal for sometime to neutralize ammonia.
What is the Fate of Ammonia in ruminants?
- Ammonia is either absorbed into blood stream move to liver where ammonia is converted to urea, urea is circulated again into saliva of ruminants.
- Ammonia is used by bacteria to produce microbial proteins.
- ammonia moved to abomasum.
- Ammonia is used by protozoa to produce their essential proteins.