The intrigue of matter on an atomic, molecular and supermolecular level is called nanotechnology. It is the earliest representation of nanotechnology referred to as the technology that manipulates atoms and molecules on molecular-scale so also called molecular Nanotechnology. It manipulates matter with at least one dimension sized from 1 to 100 nanometers. Nanotechnology comprises the field of science as vast as Surface Science, Organic Chemistry, Microfabrication, Molecular Engineering, Semiconductor Physics, etc.
It is science engineering and technology that manipulates at the nanoscale. Behind Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, the theory initiates with the idea entitled “There’s plenty of room at the bottom” by Physicist Richard Feynman at an American physics Society meeting at the California Institute of technology on Dec 29, 1956. In his, talk Feynman narrates a process in which scientists could be interpreted and manage atoms and Molecules individually. Utilization of Ultraprecision machine Norio Taniguchi gave the term nanotechnology over a decade later.
It’s hard to understand just how small nanotechnology is. One nm is a billionth of a meter. Some example illustrates it.
- There are 25,400,000 nanometers in an inch.
- A sheet of the newspaper is about 100,000nm thick.
Nanotechnology Field comprises subfields that develop or study materials contain unique properties from their nanoscale dimensions. Currently, nanotechnology used in Interface and Colloid Science, Nanomedicine, Tissue Engineering, Drug Delivery, and Biosensors.
Once scientists had an accurate device, such as the Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) and the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), the period of nanotechnology start.
Today’s Scientist is locating or identify a vast variety of ways to intentionally make materials at the nanoscale to take different benefits of their enhanced properties like higher strength, lighter weight, enhanced control of light spectrum and greater chemical reactivity on a large scale.
APPLICATIONS OF NANOTECHNOLOGY
Current Application of Nanotechnology in Food and Agriculture:
This field is widely applied in our daily routine and is changing the whole society. It has started into the Agriculture and Food Industry since 2003 when the United States Department of Agriculture Published the First roadmap in Sep 9, 2003(5). Research on this topic almost covers every feature in the Food and Agriculture industry, including agriculture, water filtration, Foof processing and packaging, animal feed, etc.
The food and beverage sector is a worldwide multi-trillion dollar industry. Estimation of economic impact worldwide of nanotechnology is projected to be at least 3 trillion dollars by 2020, which may employee 6 million workers in the rising nanotechnology industry globally. The major cause of the limited regulation is the poor knowledge of toxicity and risk which occur due to novel nanomaterials.
Current Status on Food and Agriculture Nanotechnology:
As we described earlier that nanotechnology deals with nanomaterials. Examined nanomaterials in the Food industry include Inorganic (Metal and Metal Oxide NPS), Organic (Mainly natural products NPs) and combined (i.e. Clay). Nanotechnology enabled agriculture products are Nano fertilizers (Nano- Ag etc) Nanopesticides (NANOCU), Nanoherbicides, Nanosensors. Examples of biosynthesized nanomaterials in the recent five years (2014-2018) are silver and zinc oxides NPs, Magnetic iron oxide NPs, TiO2 NPs, Gold NPs, CuO NPs that synthesized by bacteria, Fungi, Yeast, Enzymes.
USED OF NANOTECHNOLOGY IN CANCER TUMOR:
Nanotechnology use in Enhancing tumor cell response to chemotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma therapy. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most lethal human cancer and ranks third in cancer-related death worldwide among cancer patients. Since the majority of HCC patients diagnosed at an early stage, their median survival times are generally less than 1 year leading to poor outcomes. One reason is surveillance programs are not widely implemented, On the other hand, different precautionary measures like prevention of Alcohol intake, Vaccination against Hepatitis B Virus, Use of Vitamin D and Calcium can prevent HCC in many cases. However, they could not be used to eradicate the disease.
With the increasing number of nanotherapeutics and nanodiagnostics being commercialized in the early stages. Specific cancer nanotechnologies have been proven to be more effective against cancer tumors.
Applications of Nanotechnology in Dentistry:
In a trial to enhance medical diagnostics, the concept of nano biosensing was introduced. A Biosensor is a device which is used to detect the presence of chemicals, it may be enzymes or antibodies. Biosensors were introduced in 1962 by Clark and Lyons. Researchers also developed a nano-toothbrush, by integrating nanogold or nanosilver for the removal of plaque.
Applications of Nanotechnology in drug delivery to the Central Nervous System:
Pharmaceuticals NPs have been introduced to eradicate the drug release and save it from enzymatic or chemical degradation to increase its therapeutic efficacy. Nanoparticles drug Formulations have been greatly developed the efficient delivery of insoluble drugs to the brain tumor cells.
Applications of Nanotechnology in automobiles:
Nanotechnology is in the automobile sector as we depend on it compared to air or water transportation according to most researches and developments. It is applied to its various body parts like nanomaterials in the battery, Nanoadditives in Fuel, Nanoinclusions in Lubricants, Nanocoating, Nanoparticles in tires, Nanosensors, Polymeric nanocomposites.
Nanotechnology has a few concerns but if it is tested and applied accurately, it can become the future is not only fire safety but also in manufacturing and Healthcare.
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